references

References and Additional Readings

Illinois

Billingsley, E. 2006. Whitetail deer food plot considerations. University of Illinois Extension, http://web.extension.illinois.edu/fjprw/downloads/6089.pdf 

Calhoun, J. and F. Loomis. 1974. Prairie whitetails. Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield, Illinois, USA.

Cypher, B. L. 1993. Food item use by three sympatric canids in southern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 86:139–144.

Cypher, B. L., A. Woolf, and D. C. Yancy. 1993. Summer food habits of coyotes at Union Conservation Area, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Sciences 86:145–152.

Etter, D. R., K. M. Hollis, T. R. Van Deelen, D. R. Ludwig, J. E. Chelsvig, C. L. Anchor, and R. E. Warner. 2002. Survival and movements of white-tailed deer in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:500–510.

Finder, R. A., J. L. Roseberry, and A. Woolf. 1999. Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer/vehicle collision locations in Illinois. Landscape and Urban Planning 44:77–85.

Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Hofmann, J. E. 2008. Field manual of Illinois mammals. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA. 

Miller, C. A. and P. Shelton. 2000. Perceptions of white-tailed deer abundance and management among hunters and landowners in Illinois. Pages 265–268 in M. C. Brittingham, J. Kays, and R. McPeake, editors. The Ninth Wildlife Damage Management Conference Proceedings. State College, Pennsylvania, USA.

Moery, P. S., E. M. Gese, and S. Gehert. 2007. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area. American Midland Naturalist 158:147–161.

Nelson, T. A. 1964. Production and survival of white-tailed deer fawns on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2016. Social and environmental influences on female white-tailed deer dispersal behavior. Great Plains Research, 26:85–92.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2016. Response of Illinois deer to winter weather. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 109:41–47.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2015. Effects of senescence on female white-tailed deer in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 108:35–37.

Nixon, C. M. 1968. Deer populations in the Midwest. White-tailed Deer in the Midwest, A Symposium at the 30th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Nixon, C. M., M. W. McClain, and K. R. Russell. 1970. Deer food habits and range characteristics in Ohio. Journal of Wildlife Management 34:870–886.

Nixon, C. M., L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, and J. E. Chelsvig. 1991. Ecology of white-tailed deer in an intensively farmed region of Illinois. Wildlife Monographs 118:3–77.

Nixon, C. M., L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, J. B. Sullivan, T. L. Esker, R. G. Koerkenmeier, J. Cline, and J. A. Thomas. 1994. Behavior, dispersal and survival of male white-tailed deer in Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 193.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 1999. Survival of breeding age male white-tailed deer in central and northern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 92:256–269.

Nixon, C. M., L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, T. L. Esker, D. Etter, J. B. Sullivan, R. G. Koerkenmeier, and P. C. Mankin. 2001. Survival of white-tailed deer in the intensively farmed areas of Illinois. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:581–588.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2007. Social relationships of white-tailed deer in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 100:97–106.

Nixon, C. M., P. C. Mankin, D. R. Etter, L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, T. L. Esker and J. B. Sullivan. 2007. White-tailed deer dispersal behavior in an agricultural environment. American Midland Naturalist 157:212–220.

Nixon, C. M., P. C. Mankin, D. R. Etter, L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, T. L. Esker, and J. B. Sullivan. 2008. Migration behavior among female white-tailed deer in central and northern Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 160:178–190.

Nixon, C. M., P. C. Mankin, D. R. Etter, L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, T. L. Esker, and J. B. Sullivan. 2010. Characteristics of dominant and subordinate led social groups of white-tailed deer on three refuges in Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 161:388–399.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2011. White-tailed deer selection of a travel route when dispersing in an agricultural environment. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 104:1–10.

Nixon, C. M., P. C. Mankin, D. R. Etter, L. P. Hansen, P. A. Brewer, J. E. Chelsvig, T. L. Esker, and J. B. Sullivan. 2012. Selection of parturition sites by migrating and dispersing female white-tailed deer in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 105:129–143.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2015. Effects of senescence on female white-tailed deer in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 108:35–37.

Nixon, C. M. and P. C. Mankin. 2016. Social and environmental influences on female white-tailed deer dispersal behavior. Great Plains Research 26:85–92.

Piccolo, B. P., K. M. Hollis, R. E. Warner, T. R. Van Deelen, D. R. Etter, and C. Anchor. 2000. Variation of white-tailed deer home ranges in fragmented urban habitats around Chicago, Illinois. Pages 350–356 in Brittingham, M. C., J. Kays and R. McPeake, editors. The Ninth Wildlife Damage Management Conference Proceedings. October 5–8, 2000. State College, Pennsylvania. USA.

Pietsch, L. R. 1954. White-tailed deer populations in Illinois. Illinois Natural History Biological Notes No. 34. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

Richie, W. F. 1970. Regional differences in weight and antler measurements of Illinois deer. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 63:189–197.

Rohm, J. H., C. K. Nielsen, and A. Woolf. 2007. Survival of white-tailed deer fawns in southern Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:851–860.

Roseberry, J. L. and A. Woolf. 1998. Habitat-population density relationships for white-tailed deer in Illinois. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:252–258.

Schauber, E. M., C. K. Nielsen, J. Rohm, D. Storm, and G. Mohr. 2005. Cooperative forest wildlife research: Illinois deer investigation. Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory. Federal Aid Final Report W-87-R-24-26. 

Walk, J., S. Hagen, and A. Lange. 2011. Adapting conservation to a changing climate: an update to the Illinois wildlife action plan. Report to the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Prepared by Illinois Chapter of the Nature Conservancy.

Woolf, A. and J. L. Roseberry. 1995. Population dynamics and ecology of white-tailed deer in Illinois. Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory. Federal Aid Final Report W-87-R-17. 

Woolf, A. and C. Nielsen. 2002. The bobcat in Illinois. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

Westmoreland, D. A. and A. Woolf. 1981. Presence of fawns remains and other food items in coyote scats from southern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 74:63–66.

Indiana

Swihart, R. K., H. P. Weeks, Jr., A. L. Easter-Pilcher, and A. J. DeNicola. 1998. Nutritional condition and fertility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from areas with contrasting histories of hunting. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1932–1941.

Iowa

Brockmeyer, K. J. and W. R. Clark. 2007. Fall and winter food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 114:40–43.

Brockmeyer, K. J. and W. R. Clark. 2007. Fall and winter food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Iowa. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, 253 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Mustard, E. and V. Wright. 1964. Food habits of Iowa deer. Pittman–Robertson Project W-99-R-3. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa, USA.

Michigan

McCullough, D. R. 1985. Variables influencing food habits of the white-tailed deer on the George Reserve. Journal of Mammalogy 66:682–692.

Missouri

Korschgen, L. J. 1962. Foods of Missouri deer, with some management implications. Journal of Wildlife Management 26:164­–172.

Pierce, R. A. II, B. Vandeloecht, and E. Flinn. 2011. Nutritional requirements of white-tailed deer in Missouri. University of Missouri Extension Guide G9487. http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9487.

Schwartz, C. W. and E. R. Schwartz. 2001. The wild mammals of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Pennsylvania

deCalesta, D. S. 1994. Effect of white-tailed deer on songbirds within managed forests in Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:711–718.

Miller, K. V. 2002. Deer talk with their noses! Pages 14–17 in R. R. Wenning, editor. Pennsylvania deer and their horns. Wennawoods Publishing, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

Vreeland, J. K., D. R. Diefenbach, and B. D. Wallingford. 2004. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:542–553.

Eastern and Southeastern United States

Davidson, W. R. and V. F. Nettles. 1997. Field manual of wildlife diseases in the Southeastern United States. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. Athens, Georgia, USA.

Whitaker, Jr., J. O. and W. J. Hamilton, Jr. 1998. Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Texas

Armstrong, W. E., D. E. Harmel, W.F. Harwell, and E. L. Young. 1994. The management of spike bucks. Making Tracts for Texas Wildlife. Vol. 3:3. PWD BRN7100-191. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Austin, Texas, USA.

Fulbright, T. E. and J. A. Ortega-Santos. 2006. White-tailed deer habitat: ecology and management on rangelands. Texas A&M University Press, Kingsville, Texas, USA.

Wisconsin

Cory, C. B. 1912. The mammals of Illinois and Wisconsin. Field Museum of Natural History Publication 153, Zoological Series II, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Urban and Suburban

DeNicola, A. J., K. C. VerCauteren, P. D. Curtis, and S. E. Hygnstrom. 2000. Managing white-tailed deer in suburban environments: A technical guide. Cornell Cooperative Extension. Ithaca, New York, USA.

DeNicola, A. J., D. R. Etter, and T. Almendinger. 2008. Demographics of non-hunted white-tailed deer populations in suburban areas. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 2:42-49.

Etter, D. R., K. M. Hollis, T. R. Van Deelen, D. R. Ludwig, J. E. Chelsvig, C. L. Anchor, and R. E. Warner. 2002. Survival and movements of white-tailed deer in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:500–510.

Moery, P. S., E. M. Gese, and S. Gehert. 2007. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area. American Midland Naturalist 158:147–161.

Newsome, S. D., H. M. Garbe, E. C. Wilson, and S. D. Gehrt. 2015. Individual variation in anthropogenic resource use in an urban carnivore. Oecologia 178:115–128.

Piccolo, B. P., K. M. Hollis, R. E. Warner, T. R. Van Deelen, D. R. Etter, and C. Anchor. 2000. Variation of white-tailed deer home ranges in fragmented urban habitats around Chicago, Illinois. Pages 350–356 in Brittingham, M. C., J. Kays and R. McPeake, editors. The Ninth Wildlife Damage Management Conference Proceedings. October 5–8, 2000. State College, Pennsylvania. USA.

Other

Caughley, G. 1981. Overpopulation. Pages 7­–20 in P. A. Jewell, and S. Holt, editors. Problems in management of locally abundant wild mammals. New York, New York, USA.

Cote, S. D., T. P. Rooney, J. P. Tremblay, C. Dussault and D. M. Waller. 2004. Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:113–147.

Craven, S. R. and S. E. Hygnstrom. 1994. Deer. Pages D-25–40 in S. E. Hygnstrom, R. M. Timm, and G. E. Larson, editors, Prevention and control of wildlife damage. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

DeNicola, A. J., S. J. Weber, C. A. Bridges, and J. L. Stokes. 1997. Nontraditional techniques for management of overabundant deer populations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:496–499.

French, C. E., L. C. McEwen, N. D. Magruder, R. H. Ingram, and R. W. Swift. 1956. Nutrient requirements for growth and antler development in the white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 20:221–232.

Greenberg, C. H., C. E. Keyser, L. C. Rathbun, A. K. Rose, T. M. Fearer, and W. H. McNab. 2014. Forecasting long-term acorn production with and without oak decline using forest inventory data. Forest Science 60:222–230.

Gordon, E. and D. Ojima, editors. 2015. Colorado climate change vulnerability study: a report submitted to the Colorado Energy Office.

Goodrum, P. D., V. H. Reid, and C. E. Boyd. 1971. Acorn yields, characteristics and management criteria of oaks for wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Management 35:520–532.

Halls, L. K., editor. 1984. White-tailed deer: ecology and management. The Wildlife Management Institute, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

Heffner H. Jr. and H. E. Heffner. 2010. The behavioral audiogram of whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 127:111–114.

Hewitt, D. G. 2011. Nutrition. Pages 75–105 in D. G. Hewitt, editor. Biology and management of white-tailed deer. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Hristov, A. N. 2012. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States. Journal of Animal Science 90:1371–1375.

International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 2002. Economic impact of hunting in America. Washington, D. C., USA.

Jacobsen, N. K. 1979. Alarm bradycardia in white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Mammalogy 60:343–349.

Jones, P. D., B. K. Strickland, S. Demarais, B. J. Rude, S. L. Edwards, and J. P. Muir. 2010. Soils and forage quality as predictors of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus morphometrics. Wildlife Biology 16:430–439.

Kay, C. E. 1998. Are ecosystems structured from the top-down or bottom-up: a new look at an old debate. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:494–498.

Knapp, K. K., C. Kienert, and A. Witte. 2005. Statewide and upper Midwest summary of deer-vehicle crash and related data from 1993 to 2003. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Leopold, A. 1931. Game survey of the North Central states. For the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufactures’ Institute under direction of its Committee on Restoration and Protection of Game. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Leopold A., L. K. Sowls, and D. L. Spencer. 1947. A survey of over-populated deer ranges in the United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 11:162–183.

Luna, R. S., A. Duarte, and F. W. Weckerly. 2013. Influence of body size on dietary nutrition of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 4:53–62.

MacGowan, B. J., L. A. Humberg, J. C. Beasley, T. L. DeVault, M. I. Retamosa, and O. E. Rhodes, Jr. 2006. Corn and soybean crop depredation by wildlife. Purdue Extension. FNR-265-W.

McShea, W. J., H. B. Underwood, and J. H. Rappole, editors. 1997. The science of overabundance: deer ecology and population management. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington D.C. USA.

Miller, K.V., K. E. Kammermeyer, R. L. Marchinton, and E. B. Mosen. 1987. Population and habitat influences on antler rubbing by white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 52:62–66.

Osborn, D. A., K. V. Miller, D. M. Hoffman, W. H. Dickerson, J. W. Gassett, and C. F. Quist. 2000. Morphology of the white-tailed deer tarsal gland. Acta Theriologica 45:117–122.

Pike, John. 2007. Fee Hunting: Opportunities for farmers and rural landowners. University of Illinois

Pletscher, D. H., F. H. Bowmann, and R. S. Miller. 1989. Importance of deer compared to other vertebrates in nutrient cycling and energy-flow in a northern hardwood ecosystem. American Midland Naturalist 121:302–311.

Porter, W. F., N. E. Mathews, H. B. Underwood, R. W. Sage, Jr. , and D. F. Behrend. 1991. Social organization in deer: implications for localized management. Environmental Management 15:809–814.

Rahn, M. 1983. Wildlife and hunting on the Upper Mississippi River. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois, USA.

Rawinski, T. J. 2008. Impacts of white-tailed deer overabundance in forest ecosystems: an overview. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Newtown Square, PA www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/special_interests/white_tailed_deer.pdf

Robbins, C. T. and L. M. Koger. 1981. Prevention and stimulation of antler growth by injections of calcium chloride. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:733–737.

Rue, L. L. III. 1978. The deer of North America. Grolier Book Clubs, Danbury, Connecticut, USA.

Smith, R. D., A. Woolf, L. L. Hungerford and J. P. Sundberg. 1982. Serologic evidence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Illinois white-tailed deer. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181:1254–1256.

Smith, S. H., J. B. Holter, H. H. Hayes, and H. Silver. 1975. Protein requirement of white-tailed deer fawns. Journal of Wildlife Management 39:582–589.

Smith, W. P. 1991. Odocoileus virginianus. Mammalian Species 388:1–13.

Stewart, K. M., R. T. Bowyer and P. J. Wesiberg. 2011. Spatial use of landscapes. Pages 181–217 in D. G. Hewitt, editor. Biology and management of white-tailed deer. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Trefenten, J. B. 1961. An American crusade for wildlife: highlights in conservation progress. The Telegraph Press, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

Trefethen, J. B. 1970. A forty-year cumulative index of the Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Vol. 1–34, and the proceedings of the American Game Conference, Vol. 15–21. Wildlife Management Institute. 203 pp.

U.S. Dept. of Interior, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and U.S. Dept. of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. 

VerCauteren, K. C. and S. E. Hygnstrom. 1994. A review of white-tailed deer movements in the Great Plains relative to environmental conditions. Great Plains Research 4:117–132.

VerCauteren, K. C. and M. J. Pipas. 2003. A review of color vision white-tailed. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:684–691.

Wagner, K. K. and D. L. Nolte. 2001. Comparison of active ingredients and delivery systems in deer repellents. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):322–330.

Waller, D. M. and W. S. Alverson. 1997. The white-tailed deer: a keystone herbivore. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:217–226.

Waring, G. H., J. L. Griffis, and M. E. Vaughn. 1991. White-tailed deer roadside behavior, wildlife warning reflectors, and highway mortality. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 29:215–223.

Wobeser, G. A. 2006. Essentials of disease in wild animals. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Wright, B. A., R. A. Kaiser, and S. Nicholls. 2002. Rural landowner liability for recreational injuries: myths, perceptions, and realities. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57:183–191.

Organizations

Federal Agencies

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

U.S. Forest Service

Illinois Agencies

Illinois Department of Agriculture

Illinois Department of Public Health 

Illinois Nature Preserves Commission 

Illinois Colleges and Universities

Illinois Natural History Survey 

Southern Illinois University, Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory

University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

Western Illinois University, Department of Biological Sciences

Regional Organizations

Midwest Deer and Wildlife Turkey Study Group