How Deer Are Managed
The Division of Wildlife Resources of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources is mandated to restore, manage and protect deer and their habitats.
Hunting has long been the standard tool to manage deer populations in Illinois. Development of an effective deer management program entails an annual evaluation of the deer population, establishing hunting season regulations and quotas in line with goals, and conducting hunting seasons to manage the deer population.
The Illinois Department of Natural Resources uses deer harvest and deer-vehicle accidents statistics as the basis for management recommendations and decisions.
Research is a cornerstone of effective deer management. A wildlife management program depends on sound scientific principles and an understanding of long-term trends to maintain a healthy, productive deer population. Illinois deer managers work with a variety of research institutions to develop a better understanding of the role of deer in a changing environment and to keep up-to-date on the diverse views and needs of hunters, landowners, and others with an interest in deer.
The Illinois Department of Natural Resources also encourages public involvement since including multiple perspectives is an important component of establishing deer management rules, regulations, and policies.
Setting Population Objectives
Deer-vehicle accidents was identified as a primary concern involving human safety and damage to property by the Illinois “Joint Task Force on Deer Population.”
- The frequency of deer-vehicle accidents is influenced by the number of deer in an area.
- Deer numbers vary widely in the various landscapes throughout the state.
- The 102 counties of the state provide biologists small enough units of the landscape to work with effectively.
- Deer-vehicle accidents numbers and vehicle traffic is routinely collected by the Illinois Department of Transportation for each county.
- Hunting helps control the number of deer.
Making use of these facts, biologists developed a simple, yet effective, approach to deer management. See Reducing Deer-Vehicle Accidents below for details.
Reducing Deer-Vehicle Accidents
Reducing accidents by managing the number of deer
Since deer-vehicle accidents are one of the major conflicts caused by an abundance of deer, it is logical to use deer-vehicle accident rates as a measure to judge whether management is maintaining deer populations at acceptable levels, rather than using specific numbers of deer or deer densities.
By dividing the number of accidents by the number of vehicle miles travelled, biologists developed a deer-vehicle accident rate for each county.
Each county in Illinois is assigned a goal for reducing the deer-vehicle accident rate to a level at or below a set rate, achieved primarily by deer hunting. More hunting permits are issued as the accident rate increases.
Counties with deer infected with Chronic Wasting Disease have objectives to reduce the size of the deer herd below the level determined by the deer-vehicle accidents index.
The Illinois Department of Natural Resources provides an Interactive Map for viewing deer-vehicle accidents across the state.
Tips for Motorists
Motorists can reduce their chance of a deer-vehicle accident by knowing basic deer behaviors and following these tips:
- Be on the lookout for deer in areas where deer have been spotted in the past.
- Deer-vehicle accidents increase slightly during June, with the peak of accidents happening October through December.
- Deer will often cross a road and then double back.
- Deer follow each other, so watch for others nearby.
- Reduce your speed, keep a safe distance from other vehicles, and be prepared to stop.
- Alert other motorists to the presence of deer by tapping your brakes.
- Avoid swerving into traffic or off the road if deer are on the roadway. Instead, slow to a stop and wait for the deer to move.
- Flash your headlights and honk your car horn to encourage deer to move off the road.
Disease Management and Prevention
Occasionally, a disease appears in the deer population, typically starting in one region.
Reports of animals displaying specific signs will alert biologists of areas where a potential disease outbreak may be underway.
Definitive disease diagnosis requires testing tissue samples from a sick or freshly dead deer.
Many deer diseases are transmitted through saliva or fecal contamination by animals sharing common feeding sites. Consequently, Illinois law prohibits making food, salt, or mineral blocks available to wildlife in areas where wild deer are present.
Strict rules on feeding wildlife, including deer, are set in the Illinois Administrative Code at: https://www.dnr.illinois.gov/adrules/documents/17-635.pdf